Humans are in a constant need to regulate how they feel to successfully navigate the challenges of everyday life. Emotion regulation, from managing feelings in a long line at the grocery store to those needed for work and in relationships is a key to successful adulthood. Emotion regulation is particularly challenging for toddlers, who experience frequent emotional outbursts. To date, there is limited research about how toddlers learn to apply specific emotion regulation strategies and how this differs between children. A new study published in Child Development by researchers at Ruhr University Bochum in Germany investigates the relationship between toddlers’ temperament, their use of distraction as a strategy for regulating their emotions and learning through observing adults’ behaviors.

“Toddlers increased their use of distraction as a mechanism to calm themselves in stressful situations after they had watched others calm themselves in the same way,” said Johanna Schoppmann, doctoral candidate and researcher at Ruhr University Bochum. “The findings also demonstrated that toddlers can learn how to regulate their emotions by observing strangers, not just parents or other family members. These results show a need for further research on the role of the wider social context for the development of emotional regulation beyond the parent-child relationship.”

The researchers recruited participants via public birth registers in Bochum, Germany. The sample included 94 24-month-old German toddlers (50% were female). Sixty-one per cent of mothers and 67% of fathers had a university degree. Eighty-two per cent of toddlers had parents whose native language was German. Data collection took place between March 2018 and January 2020.

Toddlers were randomly assigned to two of three conditions: two experimental and one control. Initially, all toddlers freely played with their parents, then were placed in two “waiting situations” in which they waited for something they wanted such as a wrapped gift or a snack. The waiting situations were designed to elicit negative affect, specifically frustration.

Between the two waiting situations, toddlers in the experimental conditions watched the experimenter play with toys while she apparently had to wait for something. That is, the experimenter modelled how she distracted herself when dealing with the wait. Initially, the experimenter told the child she wanted to play with a toy under a blanket but explained that she had to wait until a lamp in the room turned green. In one experimental condition, 37 toddlers then watched the experimenter actively play with a push-along animal and heard her state how much better she felt while playing. In the other experimental condition, 37 toddlers watched an experimenter model calm behavior while playing and waiting for the toy she wanted. In the control condition, 22 toddlers participated in an imitation game unrelated to emotion regulation between the two waiting […]

共病 ADHD 使大多數診斷和治療計劃複雜化

共病 ADHD 使大多數診斷和治療計劃複雜化

準確的 ADHD 評估必須篩查的不僅僅是 ADHD。儘管 60% 的多動症患者有一些共存的精神疾病1, 合併症很少納入評估——導致不完整的診斷。您患有多動症,但您還有什麼可能呢?或者,不,您沒有多動症,而是其他一些可以解釋導致您尋求幫助的症狀的病症。

這就是為什麼 清單評估,雖然有用的篩選工具,但本身是不夠的。您需要坐下來與人交談並講述您的故事。在醫學術語中,這稱為分享您的病史,您的病史是所有醫學中最具啟發性和最有用的測試。雖然大多數心理健康專業人員不進行體檢,但“病史和身體狀況”仍然是醫學評估的基石。

無論您是否還沒有經歷過 多動症評估,或者您已經被診斷出患有多動症,請務必詢問您的醫生您是否有以下任何情況 合併症 常見於多動症:



大約 30% 到 50% 的多動症患者有 學習障礙 (LD) 2 3.這些包括大多數“疾病緩解”。

  • 閱讀障礙. 閱讀障礙是最常見的學習障礙,使您學習閱讀和拼寫母語的速度變慢。我同時患有多動症和閱讀障礙症,它們的表現可能會大不相同,並且會隨著時間的推移而發生變化。例如,我在大學時主修英語,現在以文字為生,儘管直到今天我還是一個非常緩慢的閱讀者。
  • 計算障礙 有時被稱為“數學閱讀障礙”。有計算障礙的人在數學事實、計數、計算和單詞問題上都有困難。但是,正如閱讀困難的人可能會被證明是有語言天賦一樣,有計算障礙的孩子可能會成長為有天賦的數學家。
  • 書寫困難 包括手寫困難、握筆或鉛筆的笨拙方式、書寫單詞或字母的間距困難、經常需要擦除以及書寫時笨拙的身體姿勢。
  • 運動障礙,或發育性協調障礙 (DCD),表示笨拙、缺乏協調、容易掉落或灑落東西、動作笨拙。 DCD 通常會在童年和青春期導致嚴重的自信心和自尊問題,因為運動能力和身體流動性在同齡人中受到高度重視。
  • 閱讀障礙. 閱讀障礙是最常見的學習障礙,使您學習閱讀和拼寫母語的速度變慢。我同時患有多動症和閱讀障礙症,它們的表現可能會大不相同,並且會隨著時間的推移而發生變化。例如,我在大學時主修英語,現在以文字為生,儘管直到今天我還是一個非常緩慢的閱讀者。
  • 計算障礙 有時被稱為“數學閱讀障礙”。有計算障礙的人在數學事實、計數、計算和單詞問題上都有困難。但是,正如閱讀困難的人可能會被證明是有語言天賦一樣,有計算障礙的孩子可能會成長為有天賦的數學家。
  • 書寫困難 包括手寫困難、握筆或鉛筆的笨拙方式、書寫單詞或字母的間距困難、經常需要擦除以及書寫時笨拙的身體姿勢。
  • 運動障礙,或發育性協調障礙 (DCD),表示笨拙、缺乏協調、容易掉落或灑落東西、動作笨拙。 DCD 通常會在童年和青春期導致嚴重的自信心和自尊問題,因為運動能力和身體流動性在同齡人中受到高度重視。

所有這些 LD 的治療包括專門的輔導(如 Orton-Gillingham、Wilson 或 Lindamood-Bell 治療閱讀障礙)或輔導;職業治療;和輔導,以幫助解決隨之而來的情緒問題。

2. 行為或品行問題

這些的診斷術語包括 對立違抗性障礙 (奇怪的); 品行障礙 (光盤);和反社會人格障礙(ASPD)。如果沒有乾預,孩子可能會隨著年齡的增長從 ODD 轉變為 CD 再到 ASPD(儘管這些情況在男性中更為常見)。儘早獲得幫助至關重要,治療最好由提供者團隊進行。

3. 焦慮症

有時 焦慮 在未經治療後發生 多動症.一旦一個人服用興奮劑藥物並獲得注意力和控制力,焦慮就會減弱。

然而,有時個體患有獨立性焦慮症,需要結合教育、諮詢、認知行為療法進行治療。CBT)、體育鍛煉、積極的人際關係,也許還有藥物治療,例如 SSRI 或抗焦慮藥。

4. 情緒問題

  • 沮喪. 再一次,在未經治療的多動症之後可能會出現抑鬱症。如果這個人反應良好 多動症藥物,性能提高,“抑鬱”消失。然而,有時一個人也會患有原發性(而非繼發性)抑鬱症,這需要自己治療。
  • 心境惡劣。 心境惡劣的悲傷和低落情緒不如抑鬱症嚴重,但持續時間更長。
  • 終生情緒低落。 從歷史上看,對此有很多術語,但一個常見的臨床觀察是,一些患有多動症的人與情緒低落和情緒失調作鬥爭。
  • 躁鬱症 (BD)。 多達 13 名 ADHD 患者中就有 1 人患有 合併BD,多達六分之一的 BD 患者患有 ADHD4 .

5. 物質使用障礙

南德 多動症很常見,行為成癮或強迫症也很常見。不要讓 恥辱 阻止您與您的醫生談論它們。除了意志力和白指關節之外,還有其他治療方法。



Devin Vargas didn’t think there was anything to worry about when interacting with people online.

Vargas, like many teenagers, had heard it all before in school assemblies, from parents, or in lectures from people older than them. For many children growing up in a digital age, online safety is something hammered into them from a young age.

However, when Vargas was old enough to be in online spaces, things were different than expected.

“You’re told in school that predators are going to look a very specific kind of way. They’re going to come and ask for your personal information, but you don’t really expect they’re going to come to you under the guise of friendship,” Vargas said.

On social media accounts, Vargas could find people to connect with in ways that felt more authentic than most real-life friendships. Vargas had friends at school, but online friends were different. These friends shared interests and wanted to talk all the time. It didn’t hurt that interacting online helped Vargas feel more confident and free to be themselves.

Before long, Vargas had a large circle of online friends who shared interests in music, movies and television. Those friends varied in gender, location and sometimes age.

One of the people Vargas interacted with online was an older user who occupied the same internet spaces. This person was in their twenties, but still consumed almost the same content as Vargas.

Online, Vargas was used to getting messages often with compliments or conversations. When Vargas messaged this person, he would reply with obscene images. At only sixteen, Vargas was confused why this had happened. The man messaging Vargas said it had been his roommate playing a joke.

So, naively, Vargas believed the person. Until it happened again. And another time after that.

At that point, Vargas realized it was time to block this individual, but even after doing so, the damage was done.

In online spaces, people like the person Vargas interacted with are often hiding online.In a digital age, many children and teenagers have constant internet access. Being online may make them vulnerable to predators, and parents can learn how to stop it.


根據一個 強姦、虐待和亂倫國家網絡研究 conducted on child sexual abuse, one in nine girls and one in 53 boys under the age of 18 have experienced sexual abuse or assault at the hands of an adult. These statistics indicate thousands of children are entering adulthood with sexual abuse in their past.

The effects can be life-changing for many kids. The Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network study reported sexual abuse in childhood makes victims more likely to develop drug problems, PTSD and depression as they reach adulthood.

Adrianne Simeone, executive director of The Mama Bear Effect, said most parents just aren’t aware of the intricacies predators can use online. Her nonprofit exists to spread information that can help parents and children prevent sexual abuse.

“We grew up with AOL Instant Messenger and we’ve had Facebook for 10 years so we think we know what’s going on. We shouldn’t be this naive, but we are,” Simeone said.

Simeone explained the subtle nature of online predators can be so complex; a large number of parents have never learned how to deal with it. Parents who encourage kids to use electronics and play games online as a way to entertain or distract them may not realize that puts them at risk for encountering predators if they don’t know what to look for.

Quinn LaViolette, a 22-year-old from Worcester, Massachusetts, told The Daily Universe that as a teenager, she experienced an online friendship with a man in his twenties after becoming a fan of his band.

At the time, she was a cheerleader with plenty of friends. However, she also recalled her internet access was not regulated at all, with her parents not seeing a need to check her internet history. This led to frequent messages with an older man online that she saw as a close friendship.

For LaViolette, the conversations at the time felt platonic in nature. Looking back, she realizes now there were many times when the messages were suggestive. She also said she didn’t see anything wrong with the age gap in their friendship.

“At the time, I thought nothing of it, I just thought it was cool that a member of my favorite band wanted to interact with me and did interact with me so casually,” LaViolette said.

However, conversations can quickly evolve from discussions about music and movies to discussions about personal lives. With that can come venting about school, family and mental health. Before long, some relationships may become emotionally intimate.

Beyond just emotional connections, some predators will ask to meet up in real life. During their friendship, which continued until LaViolette was a freshman in college, the band member gave LaViolette his personal phone number. He even asked her to meet up with him in Boston, which she said never worked out.

Red flags of a predator

The red flags of predators can be complicated to spot. According to Simeone, the subtlety of these behaviors can be so hard to notice that it takes constant vigilance to catch. However, there are still signs that can be monitored by parents and children when online.

Fight the New Drug is a non-religious and non-legislative organization that provides individuals the opportunity to make an informed decision regarding pornography by raising awareness on its harmful effects using science, facts and personal accounts. According to its 研究, there are a few things to look out for:

First are flattering comments and behavior. According to Fight the New Drug, this is used to help gain the trust of victims and make them feel important.

Simeone recommended parents teach their children to be reflective about the compliments they receive, who they come from and what the motivations behind them might be.

LaViolette said once she connected with the older man on social media, he would frequently reply to her tweets as well as compliment her on photos of herself. At the time it felt good, but looking back, she realizes it was a major red flag.

Fight the New Drug also points out secret conversations are a way predators learn to keep their victims quiet about what’s going on. Online conversations are often kept away from parents, and children and teens are unlikely to tell their parents about older online friends.

Fight the New Drug also states isolation is a tool many predators use to control victims. Many predators want to take up as much space as possible in a child’s life, resulting in the child becoming detached from friends and family.

“The children who are the most vulnerable are children who don’t feel like they have close connections with physical friends and their families. If they don’t feel like they are loved and don’t have anyone to talk to, internet predators can use that as a lure,” Simeone said.


從青春期早期開始,女孩和婦女報告的情緒症狀發生率最高,並且有證據表明近年來患病率有所增加。我們調查了與青春期早期女孩情緒症狀相關的風險因素和累積風險暴露 (CRE)。

研究發現,四個危險因素與青春期早期女孩的情緒症狀具有統計學上的顯著關係:學業成績低、特殊教育需求、家庭收入低和照顧責任。 CRE 與情緒症狀呈正相關,效應量較小。


有證據表明,在青春期早期,女孩開始出現比男孩更嚴重的情緒症狀(即抑鬱和焦慮症狀),通常在 12 歲左右[1].1 研究表明,這種差異存在於整個生命週期中;與男孩和男性相比,女孩和女性在青春期中期報告抑鬱症狀和障礙的可能性是其兩倍 [1]。他們也更有可能出現焦慮症狀和障礙,儘管這會根據焦慮的類型而波動 [2]。抑鬱和焦慮症狀明顯不同,但又密切相關,青少年的合併症發生率很高[3]。研究表明,在英國,近年來青春期女孩的情緒症狀和障礙顯著增加 [4,5,6,7] 和其他西方和非西方國家 [8, 9],需要對與這些困難相關的因素進行緊急研究。這些研究一致指出,整體情緒困難明顯增加(即,不僅僅是抑鬱 或是 焦慮症狀)並且僅在女孩中增加,而在同一隊列中的男孩中不增加 [4,5,6,7,8,9]。從青春期早期開始,在青春期的不同時間點都觀察到了影響[6]。通常,女孩中的這些增加很小,但正如 Fink 等人所指出的那樣。 [6] 效果不容忽視,值得關注。

我們著手調查與 11-12 歲女孩的情緒症狀相關的風險因素,因為有證據表明此類症狀在女孩中有所增加。此外,由於風險因素往往同時發生 [10],我們還檢查了暴露於更多風險因素是否與症狀增加相對應。我們專注於調查 2017 年青春期女孩樣本中與症狀相關的可能因素,提供對最近時間點易感人群的流行病學模式和暴露水平的寶貴見解,而不是可能導致此類症狀增加的因素,目前還不是很清楚。鑑於報告的女孩一般症狀有所增加,我們關注的是症狀而不是疾病。4,5,6,7]。此外,有證據表明,抑鬱和焦慮症狀超出了嚴格的診斷標準中規定的範圍,這表明精神病理學是連續的,而不是通過不同的疾病狹隘地表達出來。11, 12].



Kindergarten is an exciting rite of passage for American children as they join the system that will educate them for the next dozen years. But is your child ready for life in kindergarten?

While the start date for compulsory education 因州而異, most children begin kindergarten in the calendar year when they turn 5. A half- or full-day kindergarten program is available to almost every child in the United States. Though it is only mandated in 19 states and Washington, D.C., about 4 million children attend kindergarten in the U.S. each year.

Education experts say kindergarten provides the social, emotional, behavioral and academic learning that lays the foundation for future education, and that there is much parents can do to help get children ready for kindergarten.

The Utility of Preschool

Many parents enroll their children in preschool to introduce them to the basics before kindergarten. In fact, almost half of all 3- and 4-year-olds attended a preschool program in 2019, according to the National Center for Education Statistics.

“Preschool emphasizes the social, emotional and behavioral skills — the ‘readiness skills’ — for learning that set kids up for success in kindergarten,” says Steven Tobias, director of the Center for Child & Family Development in New Jersey and author of ” Emotionally Intelligent Parenting。”

Students learn these skills when they practice sitting still for circle time, sharing with others, working cooperatively, and listening to their teacher and their peers, Tobias says, adding that kids also learn vital self-help skills when they practice things like putting on their coat and taking responsibility for their own supplies each day.

Preschool education classes are a useful way to help children achieve kindergarten readiness, but there is also plenty that parents can do at home.

Physical and Emotional Readiness

First and foremost, schedule your child for a checkup with their pediatrician before they start school, says Dr. David Krol, medical director of the Connecticut Children’s Care Network.

“Make sure they are up to date on their immunizations, they have their vision and hearing checked, and they are healthy and developing appropriately” he says. “(An annual physical) is also an opportunity to make sure any questions or concerns you have are asked and addressed, and any guidance around development and safety can be provided.”

Emotional readiness is also important. Allow your child to share their feelings about starting kindergarten, says Caitlin Meister, an educator and founder of The Greer Meister Group, a private tutoring and educational consulting practice in New York. “They might feel excited, anxious, eager, trepidatious or a confusing combination of both welcome and challenging emotions,” Meister says.

To assuage any school-related anxiety, parents can take children on a tour of their school and classroom, and introduce them to their teacher before their first day, Tobias says. “The more familiar your child is with the environment and the people that they’re going to be interacting with, the easier the transition will be,” he says. “If a child has separation difficulties, alert the school. That way, they’re prepared to provide whatever emotional support might be necessary.”

To foster your child’s independence at home, give them small responsibilities that they can master over time, such as washing and drying their hands, Krol says. This will help them learn to care for themselves, and make sure they’re also comfortable asking for help, he says.

Socialization and Rules

Incoming kindergarten students should be able to share their ideas and feelings; coexist with peers comfortably and kindly; and demonstrate a willingness to learn among others, says Lauren Mactas, head of early learning at The Elisabeth Morrow School in New Jersey.

“The best way for a parent to prepare a child for kindergarten is to offer opportunities for social interaction and problem-solving,” Mactas says.

'Found' 評論:這部紀錄片以青少年的情感線索為中心,聰明、有見地、富有同情心

'Found' 評論:這部紀錄片以青少年的情感線索為中心,聰明、有見地、富有同情心


關於一個來自哪里或一個來自哪裡。收養電影通常會解決部分或所有這些問題。還有阿曼達·利皮茨 (Amanda Lipitz) 的紀錄片《成立”適合這種景觀。以可預測和不可預測的方式。


它們已經使用了近 40 年。在這個國家和美國進行了幾次修改。後字幕告訴我們,在 1979 年到 2015 年之間,有超過 15 萬名兒童被從中國收養,其中大部分是女孩。該紀錄片沒有官方數據或分析觀點。











但他決心在希伯來語之外學習普通話。他已經從他的猶太家庭知道了。和莉莉一樣,薩迪願意尋找她的父母。它承認她與母親廣泛的愛爾蘭血統有著脆弱的關係。 “嚴格來說,他們與我無關”——但也提到她的朋友稱她為“白人中國人”。

女孩們決定和北京研究員劉浩一起去拜訪中國祖先。 “你可以找到內心的平靜,”劉曉波說。你來自哪裡,看看你自己。作為一名偵探連接過去的點。他們與當地家庭的互動陷入和解和悲劇的氣氛中。當他們十幾歲的表兄弟和父母到達中國時,劉是帶領他們走向啟示和失望的人。