Social-emotional skills are a pre-requirement for learning: experts (part two)

Social-emotional skills are a pre-requirement for learning: experts

Several experts in the education system say that social/emotional learning (SEL) is an important component of formal education. Part of the pandemic response has been recognizing that learning can’t take place when children are stressed from disruption to their routines and their social connections.

Several experts in the education system say that social/emotional learning (SEL) is an important component of formal education. Part of the pandemic response has been recognizing that learning can’t take place when children are stressed from disruption to their routines and their social connections.

The Saskatchewan Teachers Federation, through their Professional Learning (STFPL) branch, highlights a framework from a US-based organization called CASEL, which stands for Collaborative Social/Emotional Learning. CASEL’s goal is to integrate SEL into every classroom. The framework has five components for self-regulation:

  • Self-awareness
  • Self-management
  • Social awareness
  • Relationship skills
  • Responsible decision-making

The key idea behind having a focus on competencies such as those above is that social/emotional skills benefit from study and practice – much like any other skill. Authorities in abstract fields such as math, chemistry, and biology may nevertheless be unable to grow strong relationships or manage their own emotions. Research shows that emotional stability and resilience can be taught and learned at any stage, from pre-schoolers to adults. The earlier the learning, the better the outcome.

STF’s professional development branch has an upcoming workshop focused on SEL and self-regulation.

“What we offer to educators,” said Connie Molnar, an associate director with STF Professional Learning, “is both the research side – a broad view of what the most current research is saying in terms of impact and importance of social/emotional learning and self-regulation – and the teacher practice side.”

Molnar works with a group of educators called the Provincial Facilitator Community. The group researches, plans, and facilitates professional development opportunities throughout the province. Molnar and her colleagues also receive feedback from the community on what the current needs of the provinces’ teachers are.

Molnar works with a group of educators called the Provincial Facilitator Community. The group researches, plans, and facilitates professional development opportunities throughout the province. Molnar and her colleagues also receive feedback from the community on what the current needs of the provinces’ teachers are.

One of the researchers whose work is used is Dr. Bruce Perry. Perry is a senior fellow of The Child Trauma Academy and a professor of psychiatry and behavioural sciences.

In a 2009 YouTube video, Perry said that the brain is made up of a series of complex systems, only one of which is responsible for thinking. These systems are related to and dependent on each other. If a child is emotionally unregulated (upset, distracted, fidgety, or bored) and doesn’t have self-regulation skills and strategies, learning is that much more difficult and inefficient.


  • 人們處理憤怒的習慣方式屬於兩種模式之一——外化或內化。
  • 當壓抑憤怒的人將憤怒轉移到自己身上時,他們經常遭受抑鬱、焦慮和軀體化的折磨。
  • When a person represses anger, they may find that many of their other desirable feelings also get numbed out.

Anger is a natural emotion and has to be processed in one way or the other. Normally, people’s habitual way of dealing with anger falls into one of two sets of patterns—externalising it or internalising it.

When these patterns are held in a rigid way or used excessively, there can be detrimental health consequences.

Internalised anger is also known as repressed anger, and it can take different forms. In this article, we will discuss what causes people to repress anger.

When people think of anger, externalised forms of anger often come to mind—someone shouting, hitting something, or acting in an aggressive way. Therefore, many people mistakenly equate anger with aggression. However, being angry does not have to mean someone lashes out.

Externalised anger is not always unhealthy. Healthy expression of anger can help us set boundaries, assert our rights and protect ourselves. People who do not internalise or repress their anger know it when they feel it. Once they have expressed their anger, either through speech or behaviours, the feeling leaves their system. It does not get stuck in the body, remain stuck, or fester. For people who repress their anger, however, the opposite happens.

Repressed Anger and Not Being Able to Get Angry

People who internalise anger hold it within their bodies and psyche. They may direct anger toward themselves and get aggressive toward themselves. They may carry all responsibilities for any conflicts in relationships, blame themselves excessively, and do not assert themselves even when they should. As they divert their anger toward themselves, they often suffer from 沮喪, 焦慮, and somatisation (emotions turning into bodily pain or physical ailments).

The problem is that, although it is 無意識, it takes a lot of energy to suppress and re-divert anger. Therefore, people with repressed anger may find that they rarely feel angry, but experience chronic tiredness.

Another problem is that on the flip side of anger are positive human feelings such as love, excitement, and passion. When a person suppresses anger, they may find many of their other desirable feelings get numbed out too. They find it difficult to get excited or passionate; they may also be disconnected from their own needs and desires.

A young person can also hold repressed anger. When they do, they may have coping mechanisms such as self-harming, selective mutism, or restrictive eating. There is no channel for them to express how they feel, and they could not afford to express anger toward their parents who can’t tolerate it. The only way to cope, therefore, is to blame themselves for feeling angry. When these children grow up, they are more prone to suffering from disorders related to internalisation, such as quiet borderline personality disorder or chronic depression.

Another well-known fact about repressed anger is that it can cause physical strain on our bodies. Holding back anger creates inner tension, which can then cause a wide range of psychosomatic ailments, such as indigestion, chronic pain, chronic fatigue, frequent migraines, and even cancer.

Reasons for Repressed Anger

People do not choose to repress their anger voluntarily. While their innate temperaments play a role (“nature” factors), it is normally the result of a person’s 童年 experiences (“nurture” factors) and social/cultural conditioning. One may have learned to repress their anger because, as a child, they were discouraged, punished, shamed, silenced, or ignored when they tried to express themselves.


Many parents have heard the term “social-emotional development,” but what does it mean in the real world?

Put simply, social-emotional development refers to children’s ability to “experience, manage and express” their feelings, build relationships and actively explore their environment, according to 2005 年的報告 from the nonprofit Zero to Three.

Managing one’s behavior, expressing emotions appropriately and developing empathy are all part of the journey.

It’s “understanding how our bodies and minds feel and think in relationship to the world around us,” says Mary Hadley, a speech-language pathologist in Texas who has spent 15 years helping adults and children communicate.

Children record many physical and mental milestones, especially in their first few years of life. Likewise, social-emotional skills grow throughout childhood and adolescence – also with milestones – and can be just as important.

Dr. Toya Roberson-Moore, a child and adolescent psychiatrist, says that social-emotional development relates to brain health, making it an element of both physical and mental health. Human development takes place simultaneously across many related areas, and it can look different for each child.

Social-emotional development changes as a child grows. A mother providing a feeling of safety for her baby begins the child’s process of healthy social-emotional development. Toddlers engage in pretend play and learn how to interact positively with others. As children enter school, they develop the ability to regulate their emotions and work well with others.

Just as children never stop learning, social-emotional development doesn’t stagnate. It builds as youngsters progress through school, allowing them to relate to others and handle challenges in healthy ways. For example:

  • Elementary school. In elementary school, social-emotional development often focuses on executive functioning skills, Hadley says, such as memory and self-control. Students engage in play-based skills, learn to advocate for themselves and practice empathy for others. When children feel safe and calm, Hadley says, parents can work on helping them recognize how their emotions feel and how to regulate themselves.
  • Middle school. Development in middle school looks similar, Hadley says. “We can teach students to be aware that the way their body and minds feel will affect their social communication,” she says. The goal is to help children understand that everyone experiences emotions, both good and bad. Yet, while middle-schoolers can verbalize their feelings, they also sometimes hide their concerns, Roberson-Moore says. They may feel ashamed of their emotions or want to avoid burdening others. This can raise additional challenges.
  • High school. “At the high school level, relationships with peer groups become very important,” says Kelly Oriard, a family therapist and co-founder of Slumberkins, a company that makes emotional learning products. As teenagers figure out where they fit in the world, it is normal and healthy for them to establish an identity outside of their family. That often means managing friendships, dating, workplace colleagues and other more complicated relationships.

When it comes to social-emotional development, parents are a primary resource for children, and experts say there are many ways to help. Here are some suggestions:


  • 我們當前的情緒設置了“情緒過濾器”,只讓與這些情緒一致的想法、記憶和情緒通過。
  • 當你情緒低落時,你的注意力系統會過濾掉相互競爭的(也許是積極的)想法、記憶和情緒。
  • 發展情商並學習將您的注意力和思想從負面暗示上轉移開,可以讓您改變您的體驗。

You are having a bad day. Like most days lately, you feel 焦慮的 and worried — maybe even a bit hopeless and 鬱悶. Nothing seems to be going right. You might think, “My life just sucks.”

Now ask yourself: Why do I have to wake up tomorrow feeling the same way I did today? The truth is that you don’t.

Changing Your Negative Experience and Thoughts

The main reason for the continuation of negative experience lies in how your brain’s 注意力 以及 記憶 systems work. But each day you wake up, you don’t have to tell yourself the same painful story.

What if you lost your memory overnight and forgot the painful experiences and tortured thoughts you were having today. Would you still feel sad and anxious? I think not. You would literally wake up with a new outlook on life — one that is fresh and clean.

At this point, you might wonder if I am suggesting staying in negative circumstances. But that is not at all the case. If you woke up in a negative environment and experienced pain, you would probably get out of there and change your environment. So, why don’t you? If you say it is not that simple, then you probably need to consider whether the problem is with the situation or with the story you are telling yourself about it.

For example: Let’s say that this afternoon I have a disagreement with my wife about how to handle a behavior problem with one of our children. I then have a difficult conversation with that child in front of my wife. The result might be that the child has a strong negative emotional experience, I feel bad and dysregulated, and my wife feels bothered that she had to witness the exchange and see her child have a negative experience.

You might know people who would bounce back from this and 30 minutes later it is like nothing happened. You also might know people for whom the negative experience lasts all day or beyond. If I or my partner are in depressive mood states, we might perceive more negative emotions in each other and respond to each other assuming disapproval or bad feelings where they need not (or may not) really exist.

Our current moods set up “emotional filters” that only let thoughts, memories, and emotions that are congruent with those moods through. Competing (maybe positive) thoughts, memories, and emotions get filtered out.

In a recent paper on 幸福 at Widener University, clinical psychology doctoral students David Albert, Amanda Blazkiewicz, Ariful Karim, and Ariana Swenson, uncovered the following:

Research has demonstrated that when we are socially anxious or otherwise in a negative mood state, we are more likely to perceive that others are in negative mood states even when they are actually feeling neutral or happy (Garcia & Calvo, 2014). Obviously, if we think that others are looking at us with negative expressions, we are likely to tell ourselves a negative story that will further increase our own bad feelings.

Another study by Beevers et al. (2009) showed that, when people are in more negative moods, they are likely to perceive more negative moods in others. The authors of this study suggested that partners of those who are depressive might need to regularly focus on exaggerating their positive expressions in order to compensate for this effect. Over time, this might cause undue 壓力 on the relationship and lead to more negative feelings. So, you can see that over time being in a negative mood could actually increase the chance that you will get even more depressed and less likely that you will be able to shift your focus to positive experiences.




報復性的睡前拖延是故意推遲睡眠以進行休閒活動的行為——例如,上網 Netflix 或滾動 TikTok——這些活動提供了短期的享受,但對長期的生活沒有什麼好處。當繁忙的日程和日常責任阻止了一天早些時候享受“我的時間”時,報復性睡前拖延尤其可能發生。 (這個想法是,你通過延遲睡眠來休閒和娛樂,是在對生活中所有的壓力源和義務進行“報復”。)



報復睡前拖延 是延遲睡眠以恢復白天失去的自由的中文表達的近似英文翻譯。術語 在大流行期間起飛,因為睡眠問題和心理困擾集體飆升。1


雖然是一個相對較新的術語,但睡前拖延對研究人員來說並不是一個新概念。3 這種行為——被定義為晚睡,沒有外部原因,並且理解延遲會導致負面後果——被概念化為自我調節問題。4 (你知道還有什麼通常被描述為自我調節問題嗎?是的, 多動症.)


  • 認知功能受損(記憶力、注意力、注意力)
  • 免疫系統減弱
  • 代謝失調
  • 焦慮 和其他情緒障礙
  • 死亡率增加6




研究表明, 患有多動症的人幾乎在睡眠的所有方面都會遇到問題, 包括:

  • 難以入睡和保持睡眠7
  • 白天嗜睡3
  • 睡眠質量差,起床困難8




過去四年中的數百個項目——從從垃圾食品中去除垃圾食品 學校自動售貨機 米歇爾奧巴馬的“讓我們繼續前進”活動——試圖讓美國的孩子吃更健康的食物和更頻繁地鍛煉。

但這些努力都沒有降低全國兒童肥胖率。事實上,兒童肥胖已經 繼續增加.這是特別真實的 疫情期間.

我們認為我們知道原因。大多數尋求降低 孩子們的體重指數或 BMI,側重於健康的食物和身體活動。但作為專門研究兒童肥胖症的研究人員 人類發展 以及 家庭科學,我們知道,瘦身需要的遠不止飲食和運動方面的注意。


為了得出這個結論,我們與同事合作,對俄克拉荷馬州農村地區近 1,200 名一年級至四年級的兒童進行了追踪,以了解更多關於超重或肥胖兒童的生活情況。我們的 干預計劃 允許我們比較傳統的飲食和鍛煉方法來管理 兒童肥胖 方法也針對兒童生活的社會和情感方面。


我們進行了一次 隨機對照試驗29 俄克拉荷馬州學校.超過 500 名有肥胖風險的一年級學生(意味著他們的 BMI 高於 75%)被分配到對照組或接受三種干預措施組合的組。

這些干預措施側重於家庭生活方式、家庭動態和 對等組.

家庭生活方式 干涉 專注於健康的食物和體育活動。參與者學會了使用顏色編碼的食物參考指南,類似於 這個 在選擇食物時。父母跟踪孩子的食物消耗和身體活動,還了解到 如何避免食物衝突.這種衝突可能涉及爭論孩子吃了多少,孩子是否可以吃甜點,或者孩子是否已經吃夠了桌子上的所有其他東西,以獲得第二份最喜歡的食物。

同齡人小組干預在兒童學校的課堂上教授社會接受度。我們的研究表明,孩子體重越重,他們的同學就越多 傾向於不喜歡他們.然而,我們也證明了我們可以 減少拒絕 這發生在小學課堂上,通過教孩子們更加接受彼此。


我們在一年級開始時測量了兒童的身高和體重,然後是乾預後——一年級、二年級、三年級和四年級。只有那些接受了所有三種干預措施的肥胖兒童——家庭 生活方式, 家庭動態 和同齡人——有 顯著減少 與 BMI 相比 控制組.

正在進行的分析表明,同齡人的干預對於嚴重肥胖的兒童尤為重要, BMI 在第 99 個百分位.

我們的結果表明,為了減少學齡前體重指數的增加,孩子們需要的不僅僅是健康的 食物 以及 體力活動.他們需要父母鼓勵他們做出健康的選擇並接受他們的情緒。知道您可以回家並談論您的憤怒和悲傷程度,這對於身心健康成長至關重要。孩子們還必須有朋友和同齡人接受他們的身份——不管他們有多重。